Saturday, 22 November 2014

What is Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

What is Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) which is also known as diabetes or blood sugar disease is a group of chronic disease characterized by elevated levels of sugar in the blood as a result of the disruption in the body's metabolic system, in which the pancreas is unable to produce insulin the body needs.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas which is responsible for controlling the amount / level of blood sugar and insulin is needed to change (process) of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy the human body. The hormone insulin serves to lower blood sugar levels.

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Early signs can be seen that a person suffering from diabetes or diabetes that can be seen directly from the effects of an increase in blood sugar levels, which increase blood sugar levels reach a value of 160-180 mg / dL and urine (urine) diabetic containing sugar (glucose ), so that the urine often dilebung or surrounded by ants.

People with diabetes generally show signs and symptoms below, although not all experienced by patients:

  1. The amount of urine released more (polyuria)
  2. Often or quickly feeling thirsty / thirst (polydipsia)
  3. Excessive hunger or eat a lot (Polyphagia)
  4. Increased urinary frequency / urinary continue (glycosuria)
  5. Losing weight is not clear why
  6. Tingling / numbness in the nerve endings in the hands & amp foot ditelapak
  7. Tired and weak all the time
  8. Experiencing myopic vision suddenly
  9. If cuts / scratches (skin infection) slow healing
  10. Susceptible to infection, especially in the skin.
Conditions which drastically decreases sugar will quickly cause a person unconscious even entered the stage of coma. Symptoms of diabetes can develop rapidly over time in a matter of weeks or months, particularly in a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Another case in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, usually they do not experience the symptoms above. In fact, they may not know has suffered from diabetes.

Type of Diabetes Mellitus

1. Diabetes mellitus type 1

Type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent diabetes where the body lacks insulin, known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). This is due to the loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the islands of Langerhans of the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is usually found in infants, children and adolescents.

Until now, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 can only be treated by administration of insulin therapy performed continuously sustainable. Family history, diet and environmental factors affect the care of people with type 1 diabetes diebetes In patients with type 1, shall be controlling and monitoring their blood sugar levels, preferably using a blood sugar test. Especially in children or infants in which they are very prone to dehydration, vomiting and often prone to various diseases.

2. Diabetes mellitus type 2

Type 2 diabetes is where the hormone insulin in the body can not function properly, known as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). This is because the various possibilities such as defects in insulin production, insulin resistance or reduced sensitivity (response) and sell the body tissues to insulin which is characterized by increased levels of insulin in the blood.

Blood Sugar Levels

Normal blood sugar levels ranged between 70-150 mg / dL {millimoles / liter (unit United Kingdom)} or 4-8 mmol / l {milligrams / deciliter (unit of United State)}, where 1 mmol / l = 18 mg / dl.

However, sugar of course there was an increase after eating and decreased at a time when the morning waking. Someone said to hyperglycemia when blood sugar levels well above normal values, while hypoglycemia is a condition where a person is impaired blood sugar below normal.

Diabetes Diagnosis can be confirmed if the results of the fasting blood sugar reaches the level of 126 mg / dl or even more, and checking blood sugar 2 hours after fasting (at least 8 hours) reach the level of 180 mg / dl. While blood sugar checks are done randomly (when) can help diagnose diabetes when blood sugar levels reach levels between 140 mg / dL and 200 mg / dL, even more so when he is above 200 mg / dl.

Many blood glucose test tool traded today and can be purchased in many places selling medical devices or Accu-Chek pharmacies like, BCJ Group, Accurate, OneTouch UltraEasy machine. For patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus, it's good for them if they can afford to buy it.

Treatment and Management of Diabetes

Patients with type 1 diabetes insulin therapy generally undergo treatment (Lantus / Levemir, Humalog, Novolog or Apidra) is continuous, but that he should perform the control diet (diet).

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment and handling management focused on lifestyle and physical activity. Controlling blood sugar levels is becoming key to treatment programs, namely by reducing weight, diet, and exercise.

Of all drug therapies Madis for diabetics, it can not be denied, costly and the outcome uncertain.



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